Alternative Energy – How to Calculate the output of a DIY Alternator

This Article premiered January 31, 2011 at our Website: http://www.watchman2012.com
It put us on the WORLD map, and the rest is history. A year and a half later, we believe it’s time to post it here.
The Blackhats may scrape the content, however the world knows that this first of it’s kind information
 
ASSIGNMENT: MATHEMATICALLY MODEL
THE POWER OUTPUT OF THIS:
  
 
Easier Said than DONE !
 
However, a reasonable model for PERFECT conditions can be made using known
principals of PHYSICS and MATHEMATICS !
 
I have been working this out for over two weeks,
12 hour dayze, just to wrap my head around this.
Just to let you know,
I have not done it alone, I have had the VERY patient
help of a real Physicist,
to be able to present for the FIRST time on
the WEB, a METHOD that everybody can use !!
 
MANY, MANY, THANKS GOES TO OUR DEAR PHYSICIST AT:
Their E-mail address is:
 
They have in house Mathematicians and Physicists who will answer questions using the latest
science,
known principals, and apply it to your question with logic and humor.
Their site is a great read, and fun for everyone, I encourage you to visit !
 Their prompt response(s) to me (seen below) allowed me to sleep again at night !
 
YOUR RESOURCE FOR LED, LED LIGHTING, INFORMATION, ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, WIND, SOLAR, ~ Please leave a comment we value your input watchman2012.comwatchman2012.com Energy & Survival Science, Boldly doing Math,
news, information and opinion stories of interest
on a wide range of topics from DIY, politics, culture, Energy,
Energy Conservation, faith and family.
 
I have had at least four false starts to this final presentation page,
as inevitably I would get bogged down in either a variable or an equation.
 
My new best friend, the Physicist says:
“Don’t feel self conscious about the math stuff. 
A “good” understanding of E and M requires vector calculus, and almost no one gets that far.
I’d guestimate somewhere around 1 in 1,000, and of those very few come away with a decent understanding.”
 
As for me, if it wasn’t for their help, I’d still be dreaming of calculations -literally.
 
Diving right in, I will lay out the physical facts of our device, lay out the underlying equations, and
then
plug in the pertinent variables and show the results,
for our mathematical model of this Alternator.
 
It is a “potential” model, and as such may or may not represent reality,
as the variables can change in real life but it does give a method for all the DIY folks
who build these to “build” them on the blackboard FIRST
Then fabricate the device and
hopefully come close to the model.
 
My main reason for undertaking this was that most of the sites are sorta backwards in that
they have years of experience building and testing the devices, and as such they have a feel
for what is going to work.
But they don’t go far enough for my taste in the math and science behind WHY it works.
 
I wanted  to totally understand WHY it works, and
WHAT happens when you change a variable such as:
  1. the size of a coil,
  2. the number of turns in the coil,
  3. the strength of a magnet,
  4. the gap between the rotor and stator of the alternator,
  5. the fifth “element”:  speed/frequency of it’s spin.
The load you attach it to also effects it’s output.
 
 It is AMAZING how much is really involved with the Alternator/Generator.
 
TESLA was brilliant in being able to build on other’s work and envision the generator.
VERY few improvements on his fundamental work have come about since he first introduced the
world to it,  that says a LOT about how elemental his work was !
 
Here we go:
 
As my DEAR Physicist says:
“Set it up however you like, just keep in mind that magnetic flux is the name of the
game.  
Picture the magnetic field as flowing water, and the coils as a hoop.  
The goal is to get as much water to flow through the hoop as possible
(and then switch the direction over and over).”
 
Electromagnetic induction:
Electromagnetic induction is the production of voltage across a conductor moving through
a magnetic field.
It underlies the operation of generators, all electric motors, transformers, induction
motors,  synchronous motors, solenoids, and most other electrical machines.
 
Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of the induction phenomenon in 1831
though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829.
Around 1830 to 1832 Joseph Henry made a similar discovery, but did not publish his
findings until later.
 
Magnetic flux through an open surface:
Faraday’s law of  induction
A vector field F ( r, t ) defined throughout space,
and a surface Σ bounded by curve ∂Σ moving with
velocity v over which the field is integrated.
While the magnetic flux through a closed surface is always zero, the magnetic flux through
an open surface need not be zero and is an important quantity in electromagnetism.
For example, a change in the magnetic flux passing through a loop of conductive wire will cause
an electromotive force,

and therefore an electric current, in the loop.

The relationship is given by Faraday’s law:

 
 
where :
\mathcal{E} is
the “Electromotive force” -EMF,
Φm
is the flux through a surface with an opening bounded by a curve
∂Σ(t),
∂Σ(t) is a closed contour that can
change with time; the EMF is found around this contour, and the
contour is a boundary of the surface over which Φm
is found,
d is an infinitesimal vector
element of the contour ∂Σ(t),
v is the velocity of the segment d,
Eis the electric field,
B is the magnetic
field.

 

Simplified for our purpose:

The induced voltage depends on the diameter (area) of the coil
and the number of turns of the coil.
The power is determined as
well by the resistance of the coil.
Faraday’s law will give
you the induced emf in the coil:
 

 
That is the potential energy per unit charge in the coil.
If the coil is connected to a load, there will be energy consumed.
The current will be I = V/R. The power is 
 
OR:
 
 
Where:
N=the number of turns in the coil
A=area
B is the
magnetic field
dt=time
ΦB is the magnetic flux in Webers or Tesla
( our Physicist suggests sticking with SI units to avoid conversion issues, the SI unit is TESLA)
 
The EMF generated by Faraday’s law of induction due to relative movement of a circuit and a magnetic field is
the phenomenon underlying electrical generators.
 
When a permanent magnet is moved relative to a conductor, or vice versa, an electromotive force is created.
If the wire is connected through an electrical load, current will flow, and thus electrical energy is generated,
converting the mechanical energy of motion to electrical energy.Although Faraday’s law always describes the working of electrical generators,the detailed mechanism can differ in different cases.
 
When the magnet is rotated around a stationary conductor, the changing magnetic field creates an electric field, as described by the Maxwell-Faraday equation, and that electric field pushes the charges through the wire. This case is called an induced EMF
 
On the other hand, when the magnet is stationary and the conductor is rotated, the moving charges experience a magnetic force (as described by theLorentz force law), and this magnetic force pushes the charges through the wire. This case is called motional EMF.
 
An electrical generator can be run “backwards” to become a motor. (AND VICE VERSA !!)
 
 
watchman2012.com Energy & Survival Science, Boldly doing Math,news, information and opinion stories of intereston a wide range of topics from DIY, politics, culture, Energy,Energy Conservation, faith and family.
 
Whew !
 
So there we have it, all or most of the tools to adequately determine the potential output of our alternator.
What we need now is data about the physical properties of the alternator, reduce that to variable data and begin to plug in the equations !!
 
 
These are our test magnets:
 
and             
1″ dia. x 3/8″ thick                         
1″ dia. x 1″ thick    
Grade N52 – Nickel Plated  NdFeB,
Grade N52
Axially Magnetized                           
Axial (Poles on Flat Ends)
Surface Field: 4440 Gauss     
 Surface Field: 6619 Gauss   2051.5 @ .5 distance  1/2″   
           NO noticeable drop off at .5″  (1/2″) 
3986.8 @ .25 distance 1/4″               
3586.8 @.75  3/4″

   37.65 lbs  force                               
61 lbs Force

 
http://www.kjmagnetics.com/ A GREAT SOURCE !
 
              
 
  
 Field’s strength drops off as distance increases
 
 
FACTS:
14 gauge wire 0.0641 diameter inches (1.628 diameter MM ) 
{ not an important variable, just a fact }
72 turns per coil
1″ SQUARE Rotor Plate  “winding post”
12 inside coils
12 outside coils
 
Our “design” RPM = 60 RPM  { DESIGN is another way of saying
“HIGH HOSEY”, “cuz we said so”… }
we need a number to plug in so we say 60 rpm could be close for
an intermittent windturbine,
I will also include a set of calculations for the classic powered
GENERATOR of 3600 RPM.
Our “design”  R, for LOAD/resistance is
a 100 watt lightbulb: 144 Ω (ohms) (ohm=SI unit as well)
 
Our “design”  GAP between the rotor and stator is 1/2 inch = .5″
this gives us the greatest Gauss/TESLA, magnetic flux
It increases the magnetic flux the closer (smaller) the gap is, so bear that in mind, the opposite is true too, it drops off with distance.
 
Now, in my previous attempt in plugging the information in there were several variables that were off
I had read the Gauss ratings for the magnets from a “general” table and not specifically for the magnet itself,  I found the specific table for them this time.
There is some difficulty with the site’s calculator in determining drop off Gauss results for the larger magnets IE: the calculator says you are inside the magnet for a .25 distance, either that or the Gauss is equal to it’s surface (which I will use as a plug in)
 
To Convert Gauss to T(esla):
 {One tesla is equal to 104 gauss}
OR
{1 Gauss = .0001 Tesla, or 1 Tesla = 10,000 Gauss}
 

Original Article at: http://www.watchman2012.com

 
For our 3/8″ thick magnet and gap of .5″
the Gauss =2051.5  T= 2051.5 X .0001 = 0.20515T
For our 3/8″ thick magnet and gap of .5″
the TESLA Unit = 0.20515T
 
For our 1″ thick magnet and gap of .5″
the Gauss = 6619 
T=6619 X .0001 = 0.6619T
For our 1″ thick magnet and gap of .5″
the TESLA Unit = 0.6619T
 
 
Finally, I was missing the cross sectional
area of A, of each coil
 
From our Dear
Physicist:

A = (pi*D2)/4 where D is the diameter of that pipe.

If you were to wrap it around a pipe, then
A= (pi*D2)/4 where D is the diameter of that pipe.
 
You mentioned that the coils were square.
The area for a square is just A=D2
Also, make sure to always use SI units. 
So, A = (1″)2 = (0.0254m)2 = 0.00064516 m2.
THE EQUATIONS:
 
So we have a simple yet eloquent equation of:
 
V = (dΦ / dt) = N x A x ( dB / dt)
 
Where:
V = Voltage
dΦ = the magnetic flux
dt = time
equals:
N = the turns in the coil
A = the cross sectional area of the coil
dB = the magnetic flux
dt = time
 
Our physicist transposes this for us:
 
The magnetic field in the coils should be roughly sinusoidal. 
Definitely not exactly, but close enough. 
There will be higher harmonics, but they shouldn’t make a huge difference.
 
B = aSin([2 pi]fT)
 
Where:
“a” is the amplitude of the field,
“f” is the frequency in Hz, 
“T” is time.
The time derivative of this is:
 dB/dt = 2*pi*f*a Cos([2pi] fT)

 
The “T” in the Cos is just time, not a particular amount of time. 
It’s saying that, as time goes on, Cosine is going to go up and
down. 
There’s nothing for you to plug into it.
For example:
The voltage coming out of a wall socket would be
V=170 Sin(2*pi*60 T). 
Knowing the T is only important if you want to know what the
voltage is “right now”. 
But it’s not useful, because it’ll be completely different in a
couple hundredths of a second.
 
AC power goes up and down a lot (how much is exactly is just the
frequency). 
So, you don’t concern yourself with the moment-to-moment power
output, and focus instead on the average power output. 
 
Happily, the average of Sin2 and Cos2 is
1/2, (.5)  which makes things easier.
 
I grabbed this from wiki, it shows the
relationship nicely:

Here begins my second and third tangents LOL
I happily went assigning values for variables, and for the first time
ever, switched my microsoft desktop calculator to “scientific” !
I guessed correctly, I might add, what the various buttons do LOL and
went about going thru a great number of calculations to
square variables, multiplication and sum things up for BOTH the 3/8″
magnets, and the 1″ magnets.
 
What I calculated took me over 12 hours to complete !
It looked VERY cool
 
I was precisely wrong LOL
 
 
 
I had quickly phoned my friend to warn him to be extremely careful when running experimental tests because if my math and understanding was correct, he was generating HIGH voltage and Amperage.
It wasn’t correct, but caution is advised anyway, since one-tenth of an Amp,  for one-tenth of a second can stop your heart !
I could see that something was off, and made several more hours of
calculations to see if I could change the results.
I must say I had great fun doing it.
It’s why blackboards come with erasers LOL
 
So I wrote my Dear Physicist again, and asked more detailed
questions about the equations as I was not seeing the
logic in some of them, and mis-applying Cosine, not knowing that
the pretty sub-equation was there for VERY minute moments in time.
 
 
Skipping over the incorrect equations and right into the CORRECT
equations for each magnet size with each coil
I now have THE DEFINITIVE method
to calculate the POTENTIAL power of a magnet/coil pair:
 
The boiled down facts/variables:
 
Magnets are:
B = 1″ dia. x 3/8″ thick =2051.5 Gauss @ .5 ” =0.20515T squared = 0.0420865225
and:
B = 1″ dia. X 1″    thick =6619 Gauss    @ .5″ = 0.6619T  squared = 0.43811161
 
N = 72 turns per coil
A = 0.00064516of each coil =0.0000004162314256
R = 144 Ω (ohms)
f  = frequency in Hertz (Hz)
 
The FINAL EQUATION:
 
Here is our Dear Physicist’s example of the full blown, final
equation @60 RPM (1 Hz) :
 
P = (7220.000645162/144) (2*pi*1*0.6619 Cos(2*pi*1*T) )2 =
(722*0.000645162*22*pi2*0.66192/144) [Cos(2*pi*1*T)]2 =
0.000259 (Cos(2*pi*1*T))2
 
So to make a blank, fill in the variables, equation,  we start with:
 
P = ( N2  x A2 / R)  ( 2 x pi x f x B Cos(2 x pi x f x T) )
(N2  x A2 x 22 x pi2 x B2 / R) [ Cos( 2 x  pi x f x  T ) ]2
 
Further:
since we know the Happy average of Sin2 and
Cos2 = 1/2 = .5
 
We simplify it to:
P = ( N2  x A2 / R)  ( 2 x pi x f x B x .5)   =
( N2  x A2 x 22 x pi2 x B2 / R) x .5
 
( N2  x A2 x 22 x pi2 x B2 / R) x .5  <—– THIS is INTERNET GOLD for ALL DIY WINDTURBINE DESIGNERS !!!!!!

Original Article at: http://www.watchman2012.com

 
WHERE: 
N = Number of turns in the coil squared 
A = The cross sectional Area of the coil squared in: (m2 ) an SI Unit 
pi = pi2 = YUMMY ! 
B = Magnetic flux of the magnet in T(esla) Units – Squared  
R = The Resistance of the connected load in Ω (ohms) an SI unit 
.5 = our Happy average of Sin2 and Cos2 
 
AGAIN:
MANY, MANY, THANKS GOES TO
OUR DEAR PHYSICIST AT:
Their E-mail address is:
 
They have in house Mathematicians and Physicists who will answer questions using the latest science, known principals, and apply it to your question with logic and humor.
Their site is a great read, and fun for everyone, I encourage you to visit !
 
Their prompt response(s) to me allowed me to sleep again at night !
 

YOUR RESOURCE FOR LED, LED LIGHTING, INFORMATION, ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, WIND, SOLAR, ~ Please leave a comment we value your input watchman2012.com

watchman2012.com Energy & Survival Science, Boldly doing Math, news, information and opinion stories of interest
on a wide range of topics from DIY, politics, culture, Energy,
Energy Conservation, faith and family.
 

Original Article at: http://www.watchman2012.com

 
 
The Calculations:
 
For the 1″ x
3/8″
magnet coil pair @ 60 RPM:
P = ( 5184 x 0.0000004162314256 x 4 x 9.865881 x
0.0420865225 / 144) = (0.000024887213527721514387891264 x .5) =
0.00001244 Watts per coil
P = 0.00001244 Watts per coil
 
x 12 coils =0.00014932 Watts @ 60 RPM
x 120 Volts = 0.0000012443 AMPERES
===================================================
For the 1″ x 1″ magnet coil pair @ 60
RPM:
 
P = ( 5184 x 0.0000004162314256 x 4 x 9.865881 x
0.43811161 / 144) = (
0.000259 x 0.5) =
 0.0001295 Watts per coil !!!!!!!!!!!!
P = 0.0001295 Watts per coil
 
x 12 coils = 0.001554 Watts @ 60 RPM
x120 Volts = 0.00001295 AMPERES
===================================================
 
For the typical Generator Speed of
3600 RPM (60 Hz) :
We need to adjust the
equation for the increased Hz:
 
( N2  x A2 x 22 x pi2 x 602 x B2 / R) x .5 
 
( 60 RPM = 1 Hz, so you take a Hz reading of YOUR alternator, Multiply by 60, then Square it to plug into the equation ) 
 
 
For the 1″ x 3/8″ magnet coil pair @ 3600 RPM:
P = ( 5184 x 0.0000004162314256 x 4 x
9.865881 x 3600 x 0.0420865225 / 144) =
(0.0895939686997974517964085504 x .5) =
0.0447969843498

P = 0.0447969843498987258982042752 Watts per
coil

 
x 12 coils  = 0.5375638121987847107784513024 Watts @3600 RPM
x 1 HOUR  = 32.253828731927082646707078144Watts
x120 Volts = 0.0044796984 AMPERES
x 1 HOUR  = 0.268781904  AMPERES

====================================================

For the 1″ x 1″ magnet coil pair @ 3600 RPM:
 
P = ( 5184 x 0.0000004162314256 x 4 x 9.865881 x 3600 x
0.43811161 / 144) = (0.9326538649839237318887998464 x .5) =
0.4663269324919618659443999232
P = 0.4663269324919618659443999232 Watts per coil
 
x12 coils   = 5.59   Watts @ 3600 RPM
x 1 HOUR  = 335.755391 Watts
x120 Volts = 0.0466326932 AMPERES
x 1 HOUR  = 2.797961592  AMPERES
 
You will note that I plugged in a
design 120 Volts to calculate the Amperes of the coils, just to show
what COULD potentially be produced.
It is NOT actual Amperes produced.
I also added a possible hourly output for giggles.
 
 
ACTUAL INITIAL TESTS:
 
So, we initially jury rigged a spinning
perimeter rotor:
 
 
To COMPLICATE matters we ADDED the 1″ magnets
on TOP of the 3/8″ magnets to increase the magnetic flux.
 
A Close-up:
 
 
The Second 1″ magnets were added as we were
concerned that the field may not reach the inner coils
properly.
 
Here’s what the unfinished ring with just the
3/8″ magnets looks like:
 
 
Although not scientific we did a metal filing
on paper over JUST the 3/8″ magnets and the field looks like
this:
 
Note the three “DOTS” of filings stuck to the
inside of the ring where the magnets are placed.
The filings give a good view of what the
field looks like.
 
And we measured it for giggles to see if it
would reach the inner coils:
This determined that it WAS touching the
inner coils, but we wanted it stronger
and so added the 1″ magnets on top of the
3/8″ magnets to increase the field strength
for meter readings.
 
We then attached a drill to the hub of the
trailer axel and spun that puppy up !
 
Let there be LIGHT !!
 
 
This one shows the motion:
 
 
The initial results:
 
With three coils wired together in Series we get the
following:
 
SPUN BY HAND:
 
Just the 3/8″ magnets: 2 Volts,  1 Ampere @ 20Hz(1200RPM)
BOTH MAGNETS      : 2.5 Volts, 1.12 Ampere @ 20 Hz (1200RPM)
INNER COILS read:      2.9 Volts  1.18 Ampere @ 20 Hz (1200 RPM)
 
DRILL ATTACHED, BOTH MAGNETS:
 
OUTER COILS:   7.25 VOLTS 1.88 AMPERES @ 62 HZ ( 3720 RPM)
INNER COILS     8.12 Volts   2.0 AMPERES    @ 65 Hz ( 3900 RPM)
 
I could redo the calculations to match the flux and Hz, so we
have a good comparison of calculated vs actual
I may do that later,
these tests were done before I finished getting a lesson from my
Dear Physicist !
The next tests will be closer to our design model calculations
for comparison.
 
When I say “we” lol, I mean my friend, I am just the calculator…
He is currently fabricating a Parallel Rotor Plate to go in FRONT of the stator
using just the 1″ magnets so we can see how that effects the induction.
We can control the gap a tad better and ultimately will have a rotor that looks more like the traditional DIY rotor so we can test it against this Stator configuration
 
It will look something like this:
The yellow dots being the magnets….
 
 
 
 
Costs so far: 
 
5 pounds of 14 ga. Enameled Wire = $300 
(12) 1″ N52 Magnets = $200 
Steel Plate (to make up the 16 plates of the stator) =$100 (and plenty left to make more !) 
Total: $600 
 
Ok, you may say kind of expensive for an alternator that you could buy at a store. 
However, the FUN in building it, the Science discovery, and the original intention of: 
making a wind turbine = Priceless ! 
 
The NEXT designs will be even better now that we KNOW what EVERYthing does 
and once built they are rugged, and will withstand HEAT better than resin impregnated coils ! 
 
Obviously, from the testing and calculations this puppy screams: MECHANICAL POWER (rather than wind) 
 
JUST WAIT UNTIL YOU SEE THE STEAM ENGINE WE ARE BUILDING FOR IT !! 
 
-Watchman 
 
 
PS. If you read this far, Please leave a comment ! 
 
PPS. I have been authorized to say that the plates and completed stator are available for sale ! 
Contact us for price and availability here 
 

YOUR RESOURCE FOR LED, LED LIGHTING, INFORMATION, ALTERNATIVE ENERGY, WIND, SOLAR, ~ Please leave a comment we value your input watchman2012.com

watchman2012.com Energy & Survival Science, Boldly doing Math,
news, information and opinion stories of interest
on a wide range of topics from DIY, politics, culture, Energy,
Energy Conservation, faith and family.
 
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A Constitutional “filter” for your toolkit

 

Hi All !

As the summer winds down, I have brief moments now to write again. Still Busy until the snow flies.. ah snow……
Time waits for no man…..

I very recently saw a program discussing the Constitution.
If you saw it too, you will recognize instantly what I am talking about in this message.

What I gleaned from the discussion is MAJOR.
It concerns a short phrase that is found in the preamble and in the preamble of most state Constitutions as well.
The phrase is: “promote our common welfare”

The discussion was around the word PROMOTE as opposed to PROVIDE.
Herein lies the exquisite employment of the english language and the PRECISE intentions of the founding fathers.
Immediately previous to this phrase is: “provide for the common defence”
and there you have it, the explicit example of provide v.s. promote.

I consider this a HUGE filter to pass all discussions and considerations thru, to completely understand if it meets constitutionality.

For example: It was a no brainer for me to respond to a recent posting of a fellow here on freedom works.
He had put forth that the governor of Maine was recommending the breakup and probable closing of the state laboratory. He further framed his argument that an “old friend” of the governor was poised to get a “windfall” by taking advantage of the state closing the lab and building his own lab business perhaps with some funding by the state via loans. he further framed his argument in the form of a question that “would this be putting the public health in danger ?” All that hidden agenda aside, the real question is, is the Governor authorized to take this action?

Here is the complete text and my response:

“Governor Lepage and an Old Friend ?
Word at the statehouse is the Governor may be laying the foundation for a windfall of business for an old friend. The Governor would like to shut down the state laboratory and have the open market take care of the lab work. An old friend has his hand out looking to capitalize on that possibility. Meetings in Augusta are taking place this week regarding the state laboratory and its need for existence.

Your comments welcome. Is this a necessary way to cut costs or does this put the public’s health in danger?

You get to help frame this story as it may become a public story”

My response:
The Preamble to the Maine Constitution states:

We the people of Maine, in order to establish justice, insure tranquility, provide for our mutual defense, promote our common welfare, and secure to our selves and our posterity the blessings of liberty, acknowledging with grateful hearts the goodness of the Sovereign Ruler of the Universe in affording us an opportunity, so favorable to the design; and, imploring His aid and direct ion in its accomplishment, do agree to form ourselves into a free and independent State, by the style and title of the STATE OF MAINE, and do ordain and establish the following Constitution for the government of the same.

You will note it says “promote our common welfare” NOT PROVIDE.

Even if true, the Governor’s “old friend” will have to compete on that open market with other lab facilities, and said competition will ultimately be better for the people of the state.

Name one sector that government can do ANYthing better than the private sector ?

A lab will have to meet standards, be accurate in it’s findings or face consequences in the form of lawsuits and loss of business. There will be other facilities that compete, perhaps perform better at a lower cost, and all will have their reputations on the line. Not to mention create JOBS.

The public’s health is always in “danger”
The question is should the state be “Promoting” or “Providing” remedies ?

I will further posit that when the state provides, it stifles competition.

Your use of “windfall” , “old friend” and raising the spectre of “danger” belies some stake in the argument, who are your “old friends” ? and are they affected by this change in promoting the general welfare ?

===========================

There you have it, a completely useful tool to constitutionally filter just about ANY argument.

is the widget PROVIDING or PROMOTING the general welfare ? and SHOULD the state or federal Govt. BE doing that Constitutionally ?

take a look around you, look at laws and proposals and pass THEM thru this filter and you can easily see how useful and PURE this filter is !!

Frankly, I cannot see how anyone in govt. could argue for or against something once passed thru this filter, and certainly YOU can easily put forth the counter argument !

With so many now looking at things thru “constitution colored glasses” your posits will ring true and LOUD !

Just think of the laws and state run entities, that could be shut down via this filter, and Just as the Maine governor has done, it will not only save taxpayer dollars, it will FREE up the PUBLIC sector to fill that vacuum with a private business competition AND JOBS !

-Watchman

Look for new articles at my site from now until late fall as our energy experiments and projects near completion, I will be posting them as time allows, www.watchman2012.com

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Smart Grid, Smart Meter, Smart Move ?

SMART-GRID, SMART-METER, SMART-MOVE ?

 Hi Folks !

 For over the last decade, whenever a president or D.O.E. pundit spoke about the nation’s Energy, and especially when they spoke of fields of solar panels and clownflowers, they ALSO spoke of Grid Improvements.

 While it is true that sections of our national grid are aging, at all the utilities responsible, they spend the vast amount of their resources updating and improving their “delivery” systems.

If they can’t get the power TO you they can’t collect fees FROM you.

So, it’s NOT like the grid was built in Edison’s day but hasn’t been improved since.

THAT implication is a MYTH if not a bold lie.

The truth is, that for fields of clownflowers especially, special equipment must be installed to smooth the power out. Since they are essentially generators, they toss spikes down the line.  

It is the powerhouse director’s worst nightmare to have a rough, spiky, power supply coming online. While they are constantly switching power sources on and into the grid as smoothly as possible, even in normal circumstances surges occur. Intermittent Clown flowers are a nightmare.

The question is WHY does the power company, and the ratepayers bear the burden of the equipment costs ?

 There also is the general remote locations of both fields of clown flowers and fields of solar arrays. Lines must be brought in and sized properly to handle peak and perhaps even future additional power. I could see a government incentive to run the lines, but again, why does the power company and ratepayer bear the lions share of the cost burden ?

 Here in Maine, they have planned a “power corridor” that will mostly be parallel to Route 95. It will cost billions. What it largely does, is connect the power companies in Canada and Maine to the huge markets to the south, the New England grid. Supplying Boston, Connecticut, Rhode island, even New York, with much needed power.

It is a boondoggle for Maine ratepayers.

Especially considering that the power will not be taxed enough to enrich Maine.

Further:

  • The fact that the local utility has undertaken the retrofit of the Smart meter, a requirement NOT an option.
  • It will not in any manner improve our local power nor reduce our rates and certainly not our tax burdens.
  • It very definitely enriches the shareholders of the power companies they currently cannot reach the greater markets.

 No Doubt in my mind that time of use rates will be implemented, as soon as a goodly number of addresses have these meters installed. The time of use rate programs of the past resulted in high bills and an utter failure as people had the option to revert to the old meter. 

So it will be the ratepayer who funds the grid “improvements”. I can see that in the near future, having the ability to actually be OFF-GRID, would be a boon to a household. At least you would be able to have a predictable if not lower, monthly cost. I certainly will be investing in taking portions of my home off-grid to several alternatives.

They can keep their smart meter.

 HEALTH EFFECTS:

 There is some truth to the health effects of the smart meter.

 They are actually transmitting in the GHz range. and with fairly high wattage.

 Your exposure is just like any other radioactivity.

It is a function of proximity and the power that is emitted.

Electromagnetic Waves

2.4 GHz is the resonant frequency of water.

This is why a microwave oven works.

The energy of an 802.11 device is the same kind of energy that cooks your food,  but on a much smaller scale.

 This is important considering that humans are made of 98% water.

Exposure to even as little as a 1/4 watt amplified with a 14db antenna, could lead to severe vision problems and possibly other health issues, notably fertility and sperm motility.

 If you were alive during the cold war, it is this type of RF energy that US and Russian spies were aiming at each other at embassies. I distinctly remember each blaming the other and complaining about it officially along with reading about it in the newspaper.

 Cell phones, wireless routers, cameras, wireless household phones, microwaves, etc. all transmit on various frequencies of the GHz range and so already make up some of the wattage you are exposed to daily.

 Just like Nuclear Radiation, the inverse square law applies:

The further you are from the emitting antenna, the less exposure you receive.

The KEY is distance.

 http://people.reed.edu/~emcmanis/radiation.html

 Some facts:

  •  A smart meter contains two antennas.
  • One transmits at 915 MHz and the other at 2405 MHz.
  • They can transmit at the same time, and so their effective radiated power is summed in the calculations of RF power density.
  •  Their combined limit is 655 uW/cm2. (milliwatts per square Centimeter)
  • RF levels associated with inhibition of DNA repair in human stem cells at 92.5 uW/cm2 (milliwatts per square Centimeter)
  •  The same frequency range as wireless cameras, routers, Cell phones and MICROWAVES +/- a few points spread over it’s spectrum.
  •  The peak power exposure limit applies to all smart meter frequencies for both the smart meter (two-antenna configuration) and the collector meter (three-antenna configuration).
  •  All these antennas are within the 300 MHz to 6 GHz frequency range where the 4000 uW/cm2 peak power limit applies (Table 3, ANSI/IEEE C95.1-1999, page 15 For exposures in uncontrolled environments).
  •  Consumers may also have already increased their exposures to radiofrequency radiation in the home through the voluntary use of wireless devices (cell and cordless phones), PDAs like BlackBerry and iPhones, wireless routers for wireless internet access, wireless home security systems, wireless baby surveillance (baby monitors), and other emerging wireless applications.
  •  Neither the FCC, the PUC, the utility nor the consumer know what portion of the allowable public safety limit is already being used up or pre-empted by RF from other sources already present in the particular location a smart meter may be installed and operated.

 Read the report here: http://sagereports.com/smart-meter-rf/?page_id=198

 So, yes, there ARE potential health risks, probably some sort of shielding in walls can avert SOME of it.

 EYES (as in blindness) and Testes are at risk when in close proximity. Cancers, pacemakers etc not good…..

Apartment buildings have MANY meters in one spot thereby increasing the power output of the signal, and there is a “collector” meter that also has antennas and sends signals.

 The “network” of meters in a neighborhood, relay the info from meter to meter to the utility, so there are times when they all could be “talking” adding to the amount of signal/power in the area, God only knows if the data has corruption possibilities, creating a nightmare of a bill….

 Now, WHY are they so gung-ho on these meters ?

  1.   it probably eliminates major expenses related to meter reading, the workers, the vehicles, the gasoline.diesel bill
  2.   In almost every region, they have for YEARS had a T.O.U. meter program.

Time of use meters track when and how much power you consume, typically there are varying rates depending on the time of day, Generally 4 or more rates/periods per day. Supposedly to “encourage” the consumer to help during peak usage hours, they turn into a nightmare of high utility bills, and typically lower income homes had them installed stressing already strained budgets.

 3. In EVERY region the T.O.U. meter programs were an utter failure for the utility. People hate the high bills and would switch back if they had the option.

The Smart meter program is a T.O.U. program in disguise, they have the very same tracking capability.

Some companies were up front about that, some were not, however ALL at some point when enough of these are installed will FORCE the T.O.U. rates on us, with your local PUC blessing !

 I worked with low income households on energy conservation. It was typical to see several hundred dollar a month bills. Most were in default when I arrived. Combined with electric heat, they were doomed to poverty.

 The whole boondoggle of smart meters was slipped in (Stimulus funds to utilities & states) as part of the grid “improvements” designed to facilitate power transmission for solar farms and fields of clownflowers on a stick (aka windturbines) 

Typically the utility and states with Federal grants pay for the infrastructure aka TAXES.

 The investors run away with the high initial profits from the generation fields. I predict they will sell those investments as soon as the clownflowers start racking up HUGE repair bills, leaving the states to deal with fields of rusting useless eyesores.

AKA MORE taxes.

 So, guess who pays the lions share of the grid-“improvements” ?

The Rate & Tax payer of course, and will BE the reason why they  “need” to get us all on T.O.U. rates asap !

 Two MAJOR topics never disclosed/discussed are:

1) The ease of rolling blackouts, simply send the shut down signal,  which BTW the METER CAN BE HACKED as it is a simple dumb communications protocol, a kid with a laptop and wireless could rack your bill to huge $ or shut down your power.

 2) see #1 and apply it to Terrorists, they just made it 1000 times easier to screw with the grid !

 -Watchman

Posted in Energy, Smart Meter | Tagged , | Leave a comment

The Emergency 72 hour Backpack

 March 15, 2011

Hi Folks !

OK, this week I believe it’s appropriate to discuss the Bug-Out Bag.

Your PERSONAL 72 Hour Emergency Supply Kit

One Bag/Kit for Every Member of your Family.

 

No Excuses Now, remember the Poor 60 year old guy who ended ten miles out on the ocean, on his roof

He got there because he said that he went back to his house “to get a few things”

Even Christ said not to go back in the house to get your cloak !

Remember Lot’s wife.

You Must have a grab and go bag, Near the door, grab it, leave and don’t look back !

 

Imagine, there are MANY situations that call for such supplies. Even a spur of the moment summer trip !

What would YOU need ?

 

An adult can carry 50-75 pounds long term, on their back with a proper pack & frame,  children less, and USE animal paks for pets !

web belts with military surplus mag pockets and canteens are very useful along with a backpak.

Here’s a basic list:
  • Enough food and water to last for 72 hours. This includes:
  • Water for washing, drinking and cooking.
  • Canada recommends 2 litres per person per day for drinking plus an additional 2 litres per person per day for cleaning and hygiene.
  • New Zealand recommends 3 litres per person per day for drinking
  • US recommends 1 gallon (3.78 litres) per person per day.
  • Non-perishable food
  • water purification supplies
  • Cooking supplies & mess kits
  • A first aid kit including stitch kits, forceps, scissors
  • Belts with boy scout or military style buckles can be used to bind packages, tie things down, and even tourniquets.
  • Fire starting tool ( matches in waterproof container, Flint & Steel, lighters, Fire Piston.) a few self lighting charcoal briquettes & boy scout firestarters, FLARES
  • A disaster plan including location of emergency centers, rallying points, possible evacuation routes -motorized and by foot !
  • Everyone should have copies of all important keys: house, vehicle, safety deposit box etc.
  • Professional emergency literature explaining what to do in various types of disaster, studied and understood before the actual disaster but kept for reference (red cross books)
  • paper masks and even respirators and gas masks are useful for lots of conditions.Better than a wet rag although even they have their place. Bandannas…
  • Maps and travel information -Laminated as paper disintegrates in Rain
  • Compass & GPS gear
  • signal mirror
  • Standard camping equipment, including sanitation supplies
  • Fold up shovel military style
  • Weather appropriate clothing ( poncho, headwear, gloves, etc.) Cold weather waterproof gear is ALWAYS a good idea even in summer. HIKING BOOTS
  • Bedding items such as sleeping bags and blankets
  • Enough medicine to last an extended evacuation period
  • Medical records
  • Pads, paper, pens, pencils
  • Pet, child, and elderly care needs
  • 3 sets minimum socks, underwear, t-shirts, you cannot have enough WHITE socks !
  • Footcare: powder, bandages, moleskin, blister treatment & needle to drain, alcohol wipes.. Nail clippers.
  • Battery or crank operated Radio.
  • walkie talkie for every member of your party, extra rechargeable batteries plug in charger, car cigarette powerchord, & small solar charger
  • Lighting (battery or crank operated flashlight, glow sticks).  LED HEADLAMP,  small solar battery charger. Candles.
  • Firearms and appropriate ammunition
  • $25-$1000 Cash and change, as electronic banking transactions may not be available during the initial period following an emergency or evacuation
  • Credit cards & blank checks, debit cards.
  • Positive Identification: COPIES such as drivers license, state I.D. card, social security card, official id’s, current first aid cards
  • Passport & Birth Certificates, copies of titles & deeds as well, Weapons permits. Wills, medical-living wills, all in  a WATERPROOF CONTAINER
  • Fixed-blade and folding knife
  • Duct Tape and rope/para-cord
  • STRONG climbing carabineers, not the junk ones people use for keychains, you need 3 for a “Z” drag, used to control decent or Pull something heavy.
  • The ratchet and strap tie downs with hooks attached are VERY useful – 3 for a “Z” drag around trees & carabineers, bungee with hooks.
  • Plastic tarps for shelter and water collection
  • Slingshot, pellet gun, blowgun or other small game hunting equipment
  • Wire for binding and animal traps

 

        I have discussed some of the items above in previous Articles, so a review may help

 Especially the WATER Article. 

If You remember one thing for Water Remember this:

BOIL, FILTER, DISTILL

In that order,  for the water you drink that day, per person.

So your kit should have the tools you need for that, aside from carrying what water you can

Bottled or in your canteen or water backpak.

 

If You have a dog, get a backpack for him, and get him used to wearing it BEFORE the emergency.

A muzzle is a good thing if you are in a crowd situation, although shelters will probably not allow pets.

You will need food, water, and medications for your pet as well, so get a good sized backpack for him, so it can carry some of your extras too.

Collar and leash.

 

MRE’s are great if you can stomach them, buy some and eat them, see what you like and order enough for everybody’s pak.

Pepto Bismal, imodium, antacids, help under stress as well.

High Energy Food bars are good.

Comfort food, coffee, tea, jerky, hot chocolate, Gatorade for electrolyte replacement.

Don’t forget the Cholera rehydration “salts” as defined in the Cholera article, put a few in everybody’s pak.

Nuts and dried fruits in a trail mix “gorp” has always been a staple for hikers.

Canned meats like HAM and SPAM are good protein treats.

Powdered everything in packets are light and provide plentiful food.

 

Remember the food  & drink you choose SHOULD be high calorie, high nutrition.

You will be under stress and be using up your body’s resources and WILL need to replenish, especially if on foot.

Bring extra to share, especially if your destination is a shelter so you can make new friends or help kids.

Bring entertainment items, decks of cards, Jax & ball, small chess & checker sets.

They not only amuse but bring some friendship and normalcy to the situation.

coloring books and crayons are good for everyone.

 

Make up one extra for each vehicle and keep it IN it, include extra Oil, antifreeze, windshield washer, and a 5 gas can(empty)

A good shovel, pick or iron pry bar, glass breakers, seat belt cutters, and road first aid kit flares and blinking/rotating/strobe lights.

 

Like the child getting his radiation scan in the photo of Japan, it is a good idea to sew the child’s name and address tags on the front of jackets !!

For those like minded, sew a bar of silver in everyone’s jackets and pant cuffs, many uses for a bar of silver,

it is an always has been the equivalent of a steak dinner, at all times and all market values.

It will get you a ride, or thru a door or border.

 

DATE everything with Marker, and check the paks often, replace and consume what is due to expire !!

 

Add on items YOU suggest in the comments box below !

 

-Watchman

 

  

 

 

 

 

Posted in 72 hour Emergency Kit, clean water, safe water, Survival Science | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

How to calculate output of WIND TURBINES

Hi Folks !

Do you build Wind-turbines, windmills, alternators for them and other powered sources ?

Want to understand how to calculate the output of the stator in the photo ?

For the first time ever on the web, I have the equation to measure it’s potential output !!

I spent the last month working with a Physicist, and going thru the variables and vector calculus with them and boiled it down to a plug-in equation ANY one can use !!

This is a MUST for ALL DIY builders as you can model it on the blackboard first see how it will work THEN spend the time effort & $ to build it !

It is all on my website:

http://www.watchman2012.com

Be there or be square..

-Watchman

Posted in Alternative Energy, SPOUTINGS | Tagged , , , | Leave a comment

EMERGENCY WATER, CLEAN SAFE WATER

January 16, 2011

 Hi Folks !

 This article is about WATER.

 You May have seen on the Request Wall a discussion between Doug and Myself regarding water.

I have been looking at water options not just for an article, but for my own home system as I am on a dug well,  which was topped by spring floods a few years ago.

The state at the time recommended people “shock” their wells with chlorine, which renders them undrinkable for several days to a week.

I never did do it. Continue reading

Posted in clean water, safe water, Survival Science | Tagged , , | Leave a comment

STOCK UP ! Prepare for hard times and savings…

January 13, 2011 

Hi Folks !

 I was going to write about something else this week,

but with all the events occurring in the country and around the world,

I have changed my mind.

This is about preparing:

 My friends and family have been hearing me spout for two years or longer,

some think I am nuts, some think I am prudent. Par for the course… Continue reading

Posted in Gardening, Survival Science | Tagged , , | 1 Comment